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Anexa Produse Kscan

Nikolay Suchacev PhD, St. Albina Girfanova, PhD St. Petersburg, the Russian Federation Prof.

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Laszlo Borbas. The index summarizes these in a time series which includes the updates in quantities and prices values. The value of consumer expenditure at time t is V t defined in the obvious way as: Now suppose that the functions pi t and qi t Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf differentiable. That is, he made the following definitions: Definitions above are reasonable definitions for the proportional changes in the aggregate price and quantity or quantity levels, P t and Q t.

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The problem with these definitions is that economic data are not collected in continuous time; they are collected in discrete time. In other words, even though transactions can be thought of as occurring in continuous time, no consumer records his or her purchases as they occur in continuous time; rather, purchases over a finite time period are material de screening anti-îmbătrânire and then recorded.

A similar situation occurs for producers or sellers of commodities; firms cumulate their sales over discrete periods of time for accounting or analytical purposes. If it is attempted to approximate continuous time by shorter and shorter discrete time intervals, empirical price and quantity data can be expected to become increasingly erratic since consumers only make purchases at discrete points of time and producers or sellers of commodities vimeo quantumwave anti-imbatranire make sales at discrete points of time.

It is, however, still of some interest to approximate the continuous time price and quantity levels, P t and Q t defined implicitly by previous equations, by discrete time approximations. There is a connection between the Divisia price and quantity levels, P t and Q tand the economic approach to index number theory. This connection Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf, however, best made after studying the economic approach to index number theory.

Thus, it can be seen that Divisia s discrete approximation to his continuous time price index is just the Laspeyres price index, PL, defined above. Since the Paasche and Laspeyres indices can differ considerably in some empirical applications, it can be seen that Divisia s idea is not all that helpful in determining a unique discrete time index number formula.

The chain system measures the change in prices going from one period to a subsequent period using a bilateral index number formula involving the prices and quantities pertaining to the two adjacent periods.

These one-period Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf of change the links in the chain are then cumulated to yield the relative levels of prices over the entire period under consideration.

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Thus the fixed base pattern of price levels for periods 0,1 and 2 is: 1, P p 0, p 1, q 0, q 1 ,P p 0, p 2, q 0, q 2 The fixed base Laspeyres quantity index cannot be used for ever: eventually, the base period quantities q 0 are so far removed from the current period quantities qt that the base must be changed.

Chaining is merely the limiting case where the base is changed each period. The main advantage of the chain system is that under normal conditions, chaining will reduce Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf spread between the Paasche and Laspeyres indices. These two indices each provide an asymmetric perspective on the amount of price change that has occurred between the two periods under consideration and it could be expected that a single point estimate of the aggregate price change should lie between these two estimates.

Thus the use of either a chained Paasche or Laspeyres index will usually lead to a smaller difference between the two and hence to estimates that are closer to the truth. It is possible to be a little more precise about the conditions under which to chain or not to chain.

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Basically, chaining is advisable if the prices and quantities pertaining to adjacent periods are more similar than the prices and quantities of more distant periods, since this strategy will lead to a narrowing of the Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf between the Paasche and Laspeyres indices at each link.

Of course, one needs a measure of how similar are the prices and quantities pertaining to two periods. The similarity measures could be relative ones or absolute ones. In the case of absolute comparisons, two vectors of the same dimension are similar if they are identical and dissimilar otherwise. In the case of relative comparisons, two vectors are similar if they are proportional and dissimilar if they are non-proportional. Once a similarity measure has been defined, the prices and quantities of each period can be compared to each other using this measure, and a tree or path that links all of the observations can be constructed where the most similar observations are compared with each Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf using a bilateral index number formula.

Hill defined the price structures between two countries to be more dissimilar the bigger the spread between P L and P P ; i. Thus there is a need for a more systematic study of similarity or dissimilarity measures in order to pick the best one that could be used as an input into Hill s spanning tree algorithm for linking observations. The method of linking observations explained in the previous paragraph, based on the similarity cel mai bun raport împotriva îmbătrânirii consumatorilor the price Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf quantity structures of any two observations, may not be practical in a statistical agency context since the addition of a new period may lead to a reordering of the previous links.

The above scientific method for linking observations may be useful, however, in deciding whether chaining is preferable or whether fixed base indices should be used while making month-to-month Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf within a year.

If it is assumed that the index number formula P satisfies certain properties or tests in addition to the circularity test above, then Funke, Hacker and Voeller showed that P must have the following functional form, originally established by Konus and Byushgens : where the n constants α i satisfy the following restrictions: Thus under very weak regularity conditions, the only price index satisfying the circularity test is a weighted geometric average of all the individual price ratios, the weights being constant through time.

An interesting special case of the family of indices defined by equation above occurs when the weights α i are all equal.

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Put another way, these price weights are independent of the quantities of commodity i consumed or the expenditures on commodity i during the two periods. Hence, these indices are not really suitable for use by statistical agencies at higher levels of aggregation when expenditure share information is available. It is possible to give a theoretical explanation for the approximate satisfaction of the circularity test for symmetrically weighted index number formulae.

Another symmetrically weighted formula is the Tornqvist index P T. The natural logarithm of this index is defined as follows: where the period t expenditure shares s t i are defined. Walsh introduced the following useful variant of the circularity test: The motivation for this test is the following. Use the bilateral index formula P p 0, p 1, q 0, q 1 to calculate the change in prices going from period 0 to 1, use the same formula evaluated at the data corresponding to periods 1 and 2, P p 1, p 2, q 1, q 2to calculate the change in prices going from period 1 to 2, Finally, multiply all of these indices together.

Since we end up where we started, the product of Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf of these indices should ideally be one. Diewert called this test a multiperiod identity test.

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Walsh showed how his circularity test could be used in order to evaluate how good any bilateral index number formula was. References Anghelache, C. In this context, the human rights international law confirms the specific place of the individual as subject of law, with a comprehensive legal personality established through international treaties and courts of justice specialized in this domain.

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Key words: human rights, individual, subject of international law 1. Introductory considerations The doctrine writers generally agree to define the subjects of international law as crema de fata cu castravete participating both in the elaboration of international legal norms and in the legal relations governed by such norms, endowed with the capacity to hold certain rights and duties under the international legal system.

An important element in the identification of a subject of international law is the legal personality, respectively of the legal capacity to act internationally.

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Certain writers 1 have identified the subject of international law as: - the holder of rights and duties provided under international law - the holder of the right to bring a claim before an international tribunal; - the holder of certain interests for which provisions are made under international law. Other writers 2 have outlined that two basic conditions need to be cumulatively met in order for the Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf to become subject of international law: to be a holder of rights and duties, established and sanctioned directly by the Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf law.

Finally, certain doctrine writers 3 have outlined the fact that legal personality in international law necessitates the consideration of the interrelationship between the rights and duties undertaken internationally and the capacity to bring complaints, claims or contentious proceedings before a court.

Therefore, any initiation of a legal action should be the result of a right recognized to that entity under the international legal system. The international doctrine of human rights mentions, besides the state and, in certain cases, the international governmental organizations, the individual as subject of contemporary international human rights law.

Individual as subject of international human rights law The promotion of human rights in the international law resuscitates the traditional debate concerning the place of individual in the international legal system.

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The doctrine sets out that the human rights may only be conceived when the individual is recognized as a subject of law, endowed with the capacity to hold certain rights and duties enforceable at law.

The human rights are defined as individual rights, therefore pertaining to the person. The matter of the place of the individual in the international legal system has been at the centre of lively doctrinal controversies. Most of the writers adopted the view according to Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf the only subjects of the international legal system are the states and the inter-states Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf organizations as derived subjectsdue to the fact that the individuals may have access to the international law exclusively by means of states and diplomatic immunity.

In other words, the international law governs relations between states, therefore the individual may not be a subject of international law.

Sticking to your guns?

The same writers consider that the state is, as a matter of historical development of the international law, the general subject of international law and it may not be assumed that a state has consented to make Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf citizens subjects of international law, unless it has unequivocally expressed its intention to do so.

At the time such rule is adopted, the states shall express their intention to confer rights and duties to individuals under the international legal system. Even in this last circumstance, certain writers do not recognize the capacity of the individual as subject of law. They assert that the state has the authority to enforce the observance of rights and obligations by their citizens and to punish any illegal deeds.

This does not mean that the individuals are subjects of international law as, most of the times, the state Șosete anti-îmbătrânire Swiss Huf a screen between individuals and international law a: their legal personality, capacity to act, their active or passive responsibility are established under the international legal systems.

It would, therefore, be very uncommon for the individuals to claim directly, at international level, certain benefits conferred under the national legislation, and even if such circumstance occurs, state mediation would be required.